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Robert McKenzie Cross: Botanical Explorer, Kew Gardens

Para Rubber Images
Home | Forgotten Legend : Tribute to Robert Cross- Sample | Further Reading : Some Books, Journals and Web Sites | Early Life in Kilmaronock Loch Lomondside 1830s and 1840s | While Robert entered Kew Gardens, London 1850s his siblings flew the nest too! | Chronology : The Years Robert Cross spent at Home and Abroad | Chinchona Missions : First Trip to South America 1859 | Robert Cross's Report on his travel to South America in 1860 | Spruce's Journal First Chinchona Mission | Chinchona : Later Trips to South America | Rubber Trees : Mission to South America 1876 | Para Rubber Images | Clements Markham, Richard Spruce and Henry Wickham | Achievements of Robert Cross | Publications of Robert M Cross | Last Years at West Cottage Torrance of Campsie | Last Will and Testament of Robert McKenzie Cross


I was delighted to hear from Caito Lanhoso Martins of Belem ( State of Para, Brazil ). He informs me that he is currently co-ordinating a project to rescue the memory of Brazilian heroes not remembered by official history. In 1940, with the inaccessability of the Malaysian rubber plantations owing to the War, the US Government started a huge operation to extract native Amazonian rubber for the War effort. 75,000 people went to work on this. Half of the men died in the hard conditions. Good luck Caito in preserving the memory of these forgotten hereoes.


From Robert Cross
Report 1877
Para Rubber tapping
with cups


Tapping for Para Rubber

Robert Cross left Liverpool on 19 June 1876 in the steamer Cearense. He reached Para on 15 July 1876. Describing the

this place, he wrote ..Para is a City situated on the Southern bank of the great River Amazon. It is80 miles from the ocean. The population is 40,000 chiefly engaged with the despatch of import and export produce. all necessaries of life are imported. Thus butter and fish comes from Norway, rice and flour by the United States, while sugar, coffee and mandiocca are brought from the southern ports of Brazil.


Preparing the Rubber

All these images are extracted from Robert Cross's 1877
Report on the Investigation and Collecting of Plants and Seeds of the India Rubber Tree of Para and Ceara and Balsam of Copaiba.


Tapping Para Rubber Tree

Robert McKenzie Cross of Kew Gardens